Components of the solar system:
1) Solar panels
2) Charging the controller
1-2-4 Solar panel
A module or solar panel is a set of silicon solar cells arranged in series and in parallel next to each other. The panels convert the sun’s radiant energy into electrical energy.
2-2-4 Charger controller
In almost all solar power systems that use batteries, a solar controller charge is used. The task of charging the solar controller is to control and adjust the electricity that goes from the solar panels to the battery. Overcharging significantly reduces battery life and, even worse, may damage the battery so that the battery is generally unusable. Basically, most charge controllers simply check and control the battery voltage, and when the voltage reaches a certain level, they open the circuit and stop charging. In only one case is the controller not needed, and that is when the charging source is too small or the battery is too large in comparison. No need to charge the controller. Most controllers can be opened easily when the voltage reaches a certain level, or they restrict the current between the battery and the PV, and return to the circuit when the battery voltage drops.
Batteries store electrical energy chemically. In photovoltaic systems, batteries are responsible for support during the night and on cloudy days. Because the output power of photovoltaic panels varies throughout the day, a storage battery can be a relatively constant source of power generation. Batteries used in solar systems due to their continuous use every day should primarily have a long life. In general, the life of a battery is expressed in terms of the number of charge and discharge cycles and the amount of battery discharge level. For example, the diagram below shows the lifespan of an AGM battery at a 40% discharge level of about 1,500 cycles. In solar systems, batteries are charged by the panel during the day and discharged by the consumer during the night. Therefore, every day and night is a charge and discharge cycle for the battery. As a result, the battery life is 1500 days, which will be about 4 years. In designing a solar system, the battery discharge level should be considered by the designer in such a way that the battery life is not too short. As can be seen in the image below, if the battery is discharged up to 80%, it can only supply 500 cycles. And that means only a year and a half of useful life for the battery. Another important feature of solar system batteries is the ability to discharge up to their nominal capacity. (Deep Cycle) Car batteries, if fully discharged only a few times, their life expectancy will be greatly reduced and will be depleted. In solar systems, after cloudy days, the battery may be discharged to a depth of 80%, and the battery must be able to supply load in these conditions.
An inverter is an electrical device that can convert direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). Using transformers, switches and control circuits, the converted AC can have any amount of voltage and frequency. Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications. From switching power supplies in computers to high voltage direct current applications of electrical installations for major power transmission. Inverters are usually used to power AC power from a DC source, such as a solar panel or batteries.